Month: October 2017

Current Trends in Pathology (Digital Pathology and MDTs)

Current Trends in Pathology (Digital Pathology and MDTs)

Pathology is involved in 70% of all healthcare diagnoses and global market for clinical laboratories is expected to reach US $149 billion by 2020.

All the basic clinical laboratories have Cell counters, Advanced chemistry analyzers, automated coagulometers and electrolyte analyzers which provide reasonable reproducibility in routine blood tests. Moderate size laboratories usually have immunoassay systems for accurate and reproducible results of hormones and tumor markers.

In surgical pathology advanced markers of immunohistochemistry and in Cytology, Flow Cytometry and immunohistochemistry have contributed to the accurate diagnosis.

Digital pathology is a booming technology in medical lab work. It has made possible to form teams of expert pathologists all over world and take their opinion.

Advanced imaging techniques have improved accessibility to various sites in the body and the provision of cytology or biopsy material from previously difficulty or inaccessible locations has contributed to, better accuracy and adequacy of sampling of the targeted lesion, understanding and unravelling of new pathological entities, and better pathological staging of cancer and improved clinico-pathological correlation.

Multidisciplinary Team Meetings (MDTs) are looked upon as the “best-thing” that happened to the speciality in recent times. Through participation in clinical decision-making, pathologists gain improved job satisfaction and have sense of being appreciated. MDTs have increased awareness among other health professionals of the speciality of pathology and its important role in the management of cancer and other patients with improved communication.

 

 

 

Technological Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy

Technological Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy

An ideal form of renal replacement therapy would mimic the kidneys completely. It would remove solutes with a molecular weight spectrum similar to that of the kidneys; would remove water and solutes on the basis of individual patient needs; and would be bio-compatible, wearable, and ideally implantable.

 Nissenson and colleagues have proposed the human nephron filter (HNF) as a novel mode of RRT for patients with ESRD. The HNF consists of two membranes that operate in series within one cartridge. The first membrane is called the G membrane and is analogous to the glomerular membrane in the nephron. It mimics the functions of the glomerulus by using convective transport to generate plasma ultra filtrate that contains solutes that approach the molecular weight of albumin. The second membrane is called the T membrane and mimics the functions of the tubule.

T membrane consists of human cortical tabular epithelial cells (HCTC) seeded onto samples of single-crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, SU-8 photoresist, SNM’s and polyester tissue culture inserts, and grown to confluence. The cells formed confluent monolayers with tight junctions and central cilia. It is molecularly engineered and selectively reclaims convectively the designated solutes to maintain homeostasis. No dialysate used in the system.

Human nehron filter (HNF) will be implantable devices and shall function throughout 24 hours. These exciting new technologies if realized would replace existing ways of dialysis and transplantation benefitting patients suffering from chronic kidney disease.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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